Fundamental Enablers
Mobility and safety
In both law and practice, women are able to move independently in public spaces free from the threat of violence
© Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | Justin Mott | Patrons outside the Cultural Post Office in Nghe An Province, Vietnam | 2011
How mobility and safety support women's economic empowerment
Access to income and assets
Women are more likely to work outside the home when they can travel independently and safely
Rapid assessment of sexual harassment in public transport and connected spaces in Karachi
A study in Karachi found that more than four out of five working women and students and nearly seven in ten homemakers were harassed at least once while commuting in the previous year; of those experiencing harassment, 23 percent of working women, 31 percent of students, and 20 percent of homemakers reduced their use of public transportation as a result.
Asian Development Bank | 2014
Policy brief: A safe public transportation environment for women and girls
Personal safety concerns led women in Karachi to use public transport less in the evening; report authors posited a related decrease in women’s “access to continuing education, flexible working arrangements or night shifts, and leisure activities.”
Asian Development Bank | 2015
Determinants of female labor force participation in Pakistan: An Empirical Analysis of PSLM (2004-05) Micro Data
Women in Pakistan who own or have access to a car were more likely to join the labor force.
Ejaz | 2007
Gender and economic choice: What’s old and what’s new for women in Afghanistan
In central Afghanistan, restrictions on mobility limited women’s ability to find work, socialize, and build networks.
Echavez | 2012
National study on women’s access to financing in Sierra Leone
In Sierra Leone, women’s limited access to networks was a key factor hampering women’s ability to scale up microenterprises.
Cherie Blair Foundation for Women | 2014