Gender Equality


To accelerate progress toward a more gender-equal world by addressing the barriers that keep women and girls from being fully active in their homes, economies, and societies.

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Self-help group members in during a meeting in the Indian state of Jharkhand.

At a glance

  • In our foundation’s work to reduce inequity over the past two decades, it became clear that the undervaluing of women and girls is at the root of every problem our foundation is working to solve. That is why we focus on breaking down the structural barriers to women’s equality and helping individual women overcome existing, day-to-day barriers.

  • In 2012 at the London Summit on Family Planning, we pledged US$560 million for family planning to save lives and improve the well-being of mothers and children. Two years later, we set about integrating gender across the foundation’s work and initiated targeted financing to advance gender equality.

  • In 2016, we announced a US$80 million investment to close the gap in data on gender issues and accelerate progress for women around the world. This was followed in 2017 by a US$20 million investment in women's movements.

  • With the launch of our first strategy on gender equality in 2018, we committed US$170 million toward women’s economic empowerment and staffed the program with a dedicated team.

  • In 2020, we formally launched the foundation’s Gender Equality Division. By creating a dedicated team, we pulled together years of work, placing gender equality on par with our other global divisions and ensuring a seat at the executive leadership table.

  • Our commitment to improving the lives of women and girls has been further strengthened through our partnerships at the 2021 Generation Equality Forum in Paris.

The latest updates on gender equality

Graphic reading: "As men are returning to work, women are left behind. The gender gap is widening."

Despite recovery efforts, women’s unemployment continues to grow

Data collected during the pandemic show just how much worse women have fared economically than men. Without urgent action, they will only fall further behind during the recovery.
By Diva Dhar and Rafael Diez de Medina

With the economic recovery failing women, now is the time to act on gender equality

The COVID-19 pandemic has largely affected women more than men. To build a strong economic recovery, data shows we must advance progress toward gender equality.
By Melinda French Gates Co-chair, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Health care worker supports routine immunization efforts in Damatru, Nigeria

Time to go big: Promoting an equitable economic recovery

Without the right investments in pandemic recovery, developing countries could lose a generation’s worth of progress in economic development.
By Gargee Ghosh President, Global Policy & Advocacy, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

Our strategy

Our work to close the gender gap falls into three broad areas, with an emphasis on reaching low-income women and girls in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, including Bangladesh, India, Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda. These countries represent some of the largest economies in their regions and are home to promising efforts focused on women’s empowerment.

First, we support the work of partners to break down structural barriers that women and girls face simply because of their gender. Second, we focus on lifting up individual women by backing projects and programs that help them overcome existing, day-to-day barriers. And finally, we weave gender equality into the fabric of our organization through our gender integration approach.

Along the way, we seek to advance women’s economic empowerment by improving the collection and use of data on gender issues so women and girls can be counted and considered in policymaking. With the right data, we can work with partners—from local nonprofits to in-country researchers, gender-focused coalitions, and governments—to develop and fund interventions that measurably improve the lives of women and girls. We also support crucial grassroots, national, and global advocacy and communications efforts to make the case for gender equality as a strategic priority that will benefit everyone.

Gender Equality is fundamental to progress. We can create a world where equal is greater.
Anita Zaidi
President, Gender Equality Division
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

Gender Equality Toolbox

Our Gender Equality Toolbox is made up of tools that can guide foundation staff and partners in designing, managing, and measuring the results and impact of gender-intentional and gender-transformative programs and investments.

Visit website

Tomato wholesalers from Duayaw Nkwanta sell to vendors at the Agbogbloshie market in Accra, Ghana.
Tomato wholesalers from the town of Duayaw Nkwanta sell to vendors at a market in Accra, Ghana.

Areas of focus

Women can successfully participate in and benefit from the economy only when governments and institutions provide them with opportunities to gain employment, access services and support, and earn fair compensation for their work. We aim to understand the structural barriers women face—such as lack of affordable child care, educational opportunities, and access to bank accounts and credit—and support proven methods to break down those barriers.

Working with partners, we collect and analyze data, design and test policies, and support governments in implementing reforms that ensure greater gender equality and lead to higher-paying employment opportunities for women and girls. For example, policies that allow working from home or nontraditional schedules can greatly enhance women’s ability to participate in the workforce and earn a decent wage. In the Indian state of Bihar, for example, we partnered with the Initiative for What Works to Advance Women and Girls in the Economy to create the country’s first district-level gender dashboard, which gives the government vital data to identify areas where improvement is needed—such as women’s safety and access to jobs—to reduce women’s barriers to economic empowerment. We are supporting the development of similar tools in Kenya and Ethiopia.

When women and girls are expected to remain in the home, perform all domestic work, and defer to parents, male relatives, and husbands on important decisions, they cannot participate freely in the economy or fulfill their aspirations. Women are also disproportionately affected by intimate partner violence, sexual exploitation, and forced labor, which further challenge their physical, mental, and emotional well-being and limit their participation in the broader society.

But history has shown that even the most deeply entrenched gender biases can be changed—and that when they are, economic opportunities for women and their families grow. We work to understand these biases, and we design and test policies and programs that strengthen women and girls’ agency so they can earn money, benefit from economic gain, and have the power to make decisions about their incomes and lives. In Uganda, for example, we’re building on group interventions that are already socially acceptable, such as women’s savings groups, to create more broad-based women’s collectives whose members are empowered to organize, use their voices, and advocate for change.

We also support programs aimed at increasing women's earning power and ability to control their own income. Women farmers comprise about half of the agricultural labor force in low-income countries, but they struggle to earn a fair income. Our partners help them connect with markets, increase their earnings, and make financial decisions. We also test and evaluate the most effective ways to expand women’s financial inclusion so they have access to the tools and services they need to manage their money. In partnership with governments in eight countries, we seek to ensure that more women receive digitized social payments deposited directly into their own bank accounts.

While working to enhance women’s economic empowerment, we also carefully consider how gender equality plays into all of the issues the foundation works on, including poverty, hunger, and health, and we aim to use that knowledge to intervene in the right ways. By taking into account how people of different genders face different norms, opportunities, and barriers, we can have a greater impact through our grants and programs while avoiding unintentionally favoring certain people and further disadvantaging others.

A core aspect of this approach is ensuring that our foundation’s global work is conducted through a gender lens, from our strategies to our programs, advocacy efforts, and research. We are training the foundation’s entire global staff in best practices for gender integration, including lessons learned from partners. Staff members in grantmaking roles receive additional training, including in how to use our custom Investment Marker tool, which helps them ask the right questions when they consider investments, such as “How do women and girls experience the problem differently?” and “Are any gender-based policies or customs in play?”

For example, pilot programs to improve sanitation by providing public toilets must be designed to take into account the unique needs of women, who are vulnerable to spying or even violence if the toilets have stalls with doors that don’t lock, poor lighting, or open windows for ventilation. If women don’t feel safe, the toilets may end up being used predominantly by men, which limits the impact of the program overall and marginalizes women and girls.

As the foundation’s programs develop or refresh their core strategies, our gender integration team works with the program leaders and teams to ensure that they apply a gender lens to their work. Even programs that focus specifically on women and girls, such as maternal health initiatives, undergo continuous, rigorous examination based on gender-related factors. We are developing clear gender-related metrics and targets to ensure that everyone at the foundation holds themselves accountable for success, and we provide ongoing assistance to our partners so they have the resources they need to make their own work more gender aware.

Without concerted action, gender inequality will continue to persist throughout our lifetimes and into future generations. With the deadline for the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals drawing near, it is increasingly critical that we consider how gender plays into every issue we touch. The formation of the Gender Equality team in 2020 has put gender equality on par with the foundation’s other divisions, ensuring that gender equality is not just part of our collective agenda—it is our agenda, as we work toward a world where equal is greater.

COVID-19 is gender blind but not gender neutral. For 20 years, poverty levels among women had been falling. Those levels are now rising rapidly. This virus exposed how fragile and superficial the economic gains for women have been in many countries. We’re working to understand how and why women are more vulnerable to the economic shocks of this pandemic.

To respond to the global COVID-19 recession, which has affected women’s livelihoods most drastically, recovery plans must put gender at the center. We are working with civil society organizations, academia, national governments, and international financing institutions to ensure that the economic recovery helps undo gender inequality rather than reinforce it. Countries that get this right will recover faster and be more resilient to future crises. If they do not, their recovery will be built on top of the same social cracks and economic fault lines as before. Equality cannot wait until this crisis has passed.

Evidence review and policy summary series

To advance understanding of the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on women in the economy and identify evidence-based solutions, our foundation collaborated with grantees and partners to produce a series of evidence reviews to describe key issues driving the economic crisis facing women and girls and highlight policy responses to create a gender-responsive recovery.

This series synthesizes evidence, provide analysis, highlights exemplars, and provides policy recommendations on key areas of policy around gender equality and women’s economic empowerment. These documents are useful resources for civil society organizations, gender equality advocates, and policy actors.

Check back for the final brief in the series focused on women’s groups in India.


Why focus on gender equality?

Too often, people living in low-income communities have fewer opportunities and less power to improve their lives. This inequality is magnified for women and girls, many of whom have little say in the decisions that affect their lives, their families, and their communities. Structural barriers such as discriminatory laws and restrictive policies limit their participation in the economy and their earning power. Harmful social norms and expectations further deny them control over their own lives, including their education, health, marital and reproductive choices, employment, and family financial decisions.

Evidence from dozens of emerging economies shows that when money flows into the hands of women, and when those women have the power to decide how and when to spend it, their lives and the lives of their families are better. One study found that the global economy would grow by an estimated US$28 trillion by the year 2025 if women were to participate in the economy to the same degree as men.1 If the world can unleash that power for 3 billion women and girls, we will begin to untangle some of the most persistent roots of poverty.

To build solutions that benefit women and girls, we also need better data. Gender inequality defies clear-cut solutions, in part because we don’t always have information about what works. Sometimes we lack evidence entirely. By improving the collection and use of data on gender issues, we can bolster efforts to reduce women’s barriers to equality and economic empowerment.

Women learn about banking and financial literacy in the mothers’ support group in Yamaltu Deba, Gombe, Nigeria.
Women learn about banking and financial literacy in a mothers’ support group in northeastern Nigeria.

Finally, as a foundation we consider it critical to consider how gender plays into all of our work. In countries and communities around the world, gender affects whether and how individuals can access resources and how much control they have over them. If we do not take gender differences into account, our efforts will miss the people who would benefit the most.

1McKinsey & Company (2015). The power of parity: How advancing women’s equality can add $12 trillion to global growth.


Strategy leadership


Program resources

  • When we set out to develop our Gender Equality strategy, we started with a single question: How do countries tend to progress toward women’s economic empowerment? This website outlines how we arrived at our perspective on what’s needed to increase women’s economic empowerment throughout the world.
  • A focus on empowerment requires a shift away from seeing women and girls as beneficiaries of health and development programs to viewing them as agents of change for their own individual and collective empowerment. The foundation’s model of women and girls’ empowerment can serve as a tool for identifying the multifaceted barriers that women and girls face.